Publications of Martin Nowak

Selected Publications

All Publications:


1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018  








  • 42. Bonhoeffer S, EC Holmes, MA Nowak (1995). Causes of HIV diversity. Nature 376: 125. PDF
  • 43.  Bonhoeffer S, EC Holmes, MA Nowak (1995). Varying selection pressure in HIV-1 infection. J Acq Immun Def Synd 10: 85.
  • 44. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1995). Can live attenuated virus work as post-exposure treatment? Immunol Today 16: 131-135. PDF
  • 45. Lipsitch M, EA Herre, MA Nowak (1995). Host population structure and the evolution of virulence: A "law of diminishing returns". Evolution 49: 743-748. PDF
  • 46. Lipsitch M, MA Nowak (1995). The evolution of virulence in sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. J theor Biol 174: 427-440. PDF
  • 47. Lipsitch M, MA Nowak, D Ebert, RM May (1995). The population dynamics of vertically and horizontally transmitted parasites. Proc R Soc B 260: 321-327. PDF
  • 48. May RM, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1995). Spatial games and evolution of cooperation. In Advances in Artificial Life, eds. F Moran, A Moreno, J J Merelo, P Chacon. Berlin: Springer, 749-759.
  • 49. May RM, MA Nowak (1995). Coinfection and the evolution of parasite virulence. Proc R Soc B 261: 209-215. PDF
  • 50. McMichael AJ, S Rowland-Jones, P Klenerman, et al (1995). Epitope variation and T-cell recognition. J Cell Biochem Suppl S21A: 60.
  • 51. Nowak MA (1995). AIDS pathogenesis: From models to viral dynamics in patients. J Acq Immun Def Syn 10: S1-S5. PDF
  • 52. Nowak M (1995). Evolutionary dynamics of HIV infections. In Models for Infectious Human Diseases, eds.V Isham, G Medley. Cambridge University Press.
  • 53. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, C Loveday, P Balfe, M Semple, S Kaye, M Tenant-Flowers, R Tedder (1995). HIV results in the frame: Results confirmed. Nature 375: 193. PDF
  • 54. Nowak MA, RM May, RE Phillips, S Rowland-Jones, DG Lalloo, S McAdam, P Klenerman, B Köppe, K Sigmund, CRM Bangham, AJ McMichael (1995). Antigenic oscillations and shifting immunodominance in HIV-1 infections. Nature 375: 606-611. PDF
  • 55. Nowak MA, RM May, K Sigmund (1995). Immune responses against multiple epitopes. J theor Biol 175: 325-353. PDF
  • 56. Nowak MA, RM May, K Sigmund (1995). The arithmetics of mutual help. Sci Am 272: 76-81. PDF
  • 57. Nowak MA, AJ McMichael (1995). How HIV defeats the immune system. Sci Am 273: 58-65. PDF
  • 58. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1995). Invasion dynamics of the finitely repeated prisoner's dilemma. Game Econ Behav 11: 364-390. PDF
  • 59. Nowak M, K Sigmund, E El-Sedy (1995). Automata, repeated games and noise. J Math Biol 33: 703-722. PDF
  • 60. Wei X, SK Ghosh, ME Taylor, VA Johnson, EA Emini, P Deutsch, JD Lifson, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak, BH Hahn, MS Saag, GM Shaw (1995). Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Nature 373: 117-122. PDF



  • 77. Bittner B, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1997). Virus load and antigenic diversity. B Math Biol 59: 881-896. PDF
  • 78. Boerlijst MC, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (1997). Equal pay for all prisoners. Am Math Mon 104: 303-305. PDF
  • 79. Boerlijst MC, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (1997). The logic of contrition. J theor Biol 185: 281-293. PDF
  • 80. Bonhoeffer S, J Coffin, MA Nowak (1997). Human immunodeficiency virus drug therapy and virus load. J Virol 71(4): 3275-3278. PDF
  • 81. Bonhoeffer S, RM May, GM Shaw, MA Nowak (1997). Virus dynamics and drug therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 6971-6976. PDF
  • 82. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1997). Pre-existence and emergence of drug resistance in HIV-1 infection. Proc R Soc B 264: 631-637. PDF
  • 83. Chun T-W, Stuyver L, Mizell S B, Ehler L A, Mican J A M, Baseler M, Lloyd A L, Nowak M A, Fauci A S (1997). Presence of an inducible HIV-1 latent reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 13193-13197. PDF
  • 84. Cooke J, MA Nowak, MC Boerlijst, J Maynard Smith (1997). Evolutionary origins and maintenance of redundant gene expression during metazoan development. Trends Genet 13: 360-364. PDF
  • 85. Goulder PJR, RE Phillips, RA Colbert, S McAdam, G Ogg, MA Nowak, P Giangrande, G Luzzi, B Morgan, A Edwards, AJ McMichael, S Rowland-Jones (1997). Late escape from an immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response associated with progression to AIDS. Nat Med 3: 212-217. PDF
  • 86. Goulder P, D Price, M Nowak, S Rowland-Jones, R Phillips, and A McMichael (1997). Co-evolution of human immunodeficiency virus and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Immunol Rev 159: 17-29. PDF
  • 87. Lifson JD, MA Nowak, S Goldstein, JL Rossio, A Kinter, G Vasquez, TA Wiltrout, C Brown, D Schneider, L Wahl, AL Lloyd, J Williams, WR Elkins, AS Fauci, VM Hirsch (1997). The extent of early viral replication is a critical determinant of the natural history of simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol 71: 9508-9514. PDF
  • 88. May RM, DJ Stekel, MA Nowak (1997). Antigenic diversity thresholds and hazard functions. Math Biosci 139: 59-68. PDF
  • 89. Nowak MA, MC Boerlijst, J Cooke, J Maynard Smith (1997). Evolution of genetic redundancy. Nature 388: 167-171. PDF
  • 90. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, GM Shaw, RM May (1997). Anti-viral drug treatment: Dynamics of resistance in free virus and infected cell populations. J theor Biol 184: 203-217. PDF
  • 91. Nowak MA, AL Lloyd, G Vasquez, TA Wiltrout, LM Wahl, N Bischofsberger, J Williams, A Kinter, AS Fauci, VM Hirsch, JD Lifson (1997). Viral dynamics of primary viremia and antiretroviral therapy in simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol 71: 7518-7525. PDF
  • 92. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (1997). The natural history of mutual aid: An eye for an eye, and a meal for a meal. In Wissenschaft als Kultur, ed. F Stadler. New York: Springer Verlag, 259-272.
  • 93. Stekel D, C Parker, MA Nowak (1997). A model of lymphocyte recirculation. Immunol Today 18: 216-221. PDF
  • 94. Wein LM, SA Zenios, MA Nowak (1997). Dynamic multidrug therapies for HIV: A control theoretic approach. J theor Biol 185: 15-29. PDF


  • 95. Goh WC, ME Rogel, CM Kinsey, SF Michael, PN Fultz, MA Nowak, BH Hahn, M Emerman (1998). HIV-1 Vpr increases viral expression by manipulation of the cell cycle: A mechanism for selection of Vpr in vivo. Nat Med 4: 65-71. PDF
  • 96. Kilby JM, S Hopkins, T Venetta, B DiMassimo, GA Cloud, JY Lee, L Alldredge, E Hunter, D Lambert, D Bolognesi, T Matthews, L Carder, MR Johnson, MA Nowak, GM Shaw, MS Saag (1998). Potent suppression of HIV-1 replication in humans by T-20, a peptide inhibitor of gp-41 mediated virus entry. Nat Med 4: 1302-1307. PDF
  • 97. Levin BR, R Antia, E Berliner, P Bloland, S Bonhoeffer, M Cohen, T DeRouin, PI Fields, H Jafari, D Jernigan, M Lipsitch, JE McGowan, P Mead, M Nowak, T Porco, P Sykora, L Simmonsen, J Spitznagel, R Tauxe, F Tenover (1998). Resistance to antimicrobial chemotherapy: A prescription for research and action. Am J Med Sci 315: 87-94. PDF
  • 98. Nowak MA, DC Krakauer, A Klug, RM May (1998). Prion infection dynamics. Integr Biol 1: 3-15.<3::AID-INBI2>3.3.CO;2-0 PDF
  • 99. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). Darwins dynamik. DMV-Mitteilungen 4: 37-44. PDF
  • 100. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring. Nature 393: 573-577. PDF
  • 101. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). The dynamics of indirect reciprocity. J theor Biol 194: 561-574. PDF
  • 102. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). What two legs can learn from four legs. Book review of Foundations of Social Evolution, SA Frank; Cooperation Among Animals, AL Dugatkin. Nature 395: 760-761. PDF
  • 103. Ogg GS, X Jin, S Bonhoeffer, PR Dunbar, MA Nowak, S Monard, J Segal, Y Cao, SL Rowland-Jones, V Cerundolo, A Hurley, M Markowitz, DD Ho, DF Nixon, AJ McMichael (1998). Quantitation of HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and plasma load of viral RNA. Science 279: 2103-2106. PDF
  • 104. Ostrowski MA, DC Krakauer, Y Li, SJ Justement, G Learn, LA Ehler, SK Stanley, MA Nowak, AS Fauci (1998). Effect of immune activation on the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus replication and on the distribution of viral quasispecies. J Virol 72: 7772-7784. PDF
  • 105. Regoes RR, D Wodarz, MA Nowak (1998). Virus dynamics: The effect of target cell limitation and immune responses on virus evolution. J theor Biol 191: 451-462. PDF
  • 106. Ribeiro RM, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1998). The frequency of resistant mutant virus before antiviral therapy. AIDS 12: 461-465. PDF
  • 107. Sigmund K, M Boerlijst, MA Nowak (1998). Automata and inner states for repeated games. In Game Theory, Experience, Rationality, eds. W Leinfeller, E Koehler. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 131-139.
  • 108. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (1998). Cyber-sociology. Book review of The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration, R Axelrod. Nature 392: 457. PDF
  • 109. Wodarz D, P Klenerman, MA Nowak (1998). Dynamics of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte exhaustion. Proc R Soc B 265: 191-203  PDF
  • 110. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1998). Mathematical models of virus dynamics and resistance. J HIV Ther 3: 36-41. PDF
  • 111. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1998). The effect of different immune responses on the evolution of virulent CXCR4-tropic HIV. Proc R Soc B 265: 2149-2158. PDF


  • 112. Arnaout RA, AL Lloyd, TR O'Brien, JJ Goedert, JM Leonard, MA Nowak (1999). A simple relationship between viral load and survival time in HIV-1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 11549-11553. PDF
  • 113. Bangham CRM, SE Hall, KJM Jeffery, AM Vine, A Witkover, MA Nowak, D Wodarz, K Ususku, M Osame (1999). Genetic control and dynamics of the cellular immune response to the human T-cell leukaemia virus, HTLV-I. Phil Trans R Soc B 354: 691-700. PDF
  • 114. Callaway DS, RM Ribeiro, MA Nowak (1999). Virus phenotype switching and disease progression in HIV-1 infection. Proc R Soc B 266: 2523-2530. PDF
  • 115. Hockett RD, JM Kilby, CA Derdeyn, MS Saag, M Sillers, K Squires, S Chiz, MA Nowak, GM Shaw, RP Bucy (1999). Constant mean viral copy number per infected cell in tissues regardless of high, low, or undetectable plasma HIV RNA. J Exp Med 189: 1545-1554. PDF
  • 116. Jefferey KJM, K Usuku, SE Hall, W Matsumoto, GP Taylor, J Proctor, M Bunce, GS Ogg, KI Welsh, JN Weber, AL Lloyd, MA Nowak, M Nagai, D Kodama, S Izumo, M Osame, CRM Bangham (1999). HLA alleles determine human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) proviral load and the risk of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 3848-3853. PDF
  • 117. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (1999). Evolutionary preservation of redundant duplicated genes. Semin Cell Dev Biol 10: 555-559. PDF
  • 118. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (1999). T-cell induced pathogenesis in HIV: Bystander effects and latent infection. Proc R Soc B 266: 1069-1075. PDF
  • 119. Masel J, VAA Jansen, MA Nowak (1999). Quantifying the kinetic parameters of prion replication. Biophys Chem 77: 139-152. PDF
  • 120. Nowak MA (1999). The mathematical biology of human infections. Conserv Ecol 3: 12. (online version)
  • 121. Nowak MA, DC Krakauer (1999). The evolution of language. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 8028-8033. PDF
  • 122. Nowak MA, DC Krakauer, A Dress (1999). An error limit for the evolution of language. Proc R Soc B 266: 2131-2136. PDF
  • 123. Nowak MA, J Plotkin, D Krakauer (1999). The evolutionary language game. J theor Biol 200: 147-162. PDF
  • 124. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1999). Aux racines de la coopération. Recherche 325: 38-39. PDF
  • 125. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1999). Phage-lift for game theory. Nature 398: 367-368. PDF
  • 126. Ogg GS, X Jin, S Bonhoeffer, P Moss, MA Nowak, S Monard, JP Segal, Y Cao, SL Rowland-Jones, A Hurley, M Markowitz, DD Ho, AJ McMichael, DF Nixon (1999). Decay kinetics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-specific effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes after combination antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 73: 797-800. PDF
  • 127. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (1999). Evolutionary game theory. Curr Biol 9: R503-R505. PDF
  • 128. Taylor GP, SE Hall, S Navarette, CA Michie, R Davis, AD Witkover, M Rossor, MA Nowak, P Rudge, E Matutes, CRM Bangham, JN Weber (1999). Effect of lamivudine on human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)  DNA copy number, T-cell phenotype, and anti-Tax cytotoxic T-cell frequency in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. J Virol 73: 10289-10295. PDF
  • 129. Wahl LM, MA Nowak (1999). The continuous prisoner's dilemma: I. Linear reactive strategies. J theor Biol 200: 307-321. PDF
  • 130. Wahl LM, MA Nowak (1999). The continuous prisoner's dilemma: II. Linear reactive strategies with noise. J theor Biol 200: 323-338. PDF
  • 131. Wodarz D, AL Lloyd, VAA Jansen, MA Nowak (1999). Dynamics of macrophage and T cell infection by HIV. J theor Biol 196: 101-113. PDF
  • 132. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Dynamics of HIV pathogenesis and treatment. In Origin and Evolution of Viruses, eds. E Domingo, R Webster, J Holland. London: Academic Press, 197-223.
  • 133. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Dynamics of immune escape in HIV infection. Wien Klin Wochenschr 111: 419-427. PDF
  • 134. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 induced subversion of the immune response. Immunol Rev 168: 75-89. PDF
  • 135. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Specific therapy regimes could lead to long-term immunological control of HIV. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 14464-14469. PDF
  • 136. Wodarz D, MA Nowak, CRM Bangham (1999). The dynamics of HTLV-I and the CTL response. Immunol Today 20: 220-227. PDF












  • 306.  Bozic I, T Antal, H Ohtsuki, H Carter, D Kim, S Chen, R Karchin, KW Kinzler, B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2010). Accumulation of driver and passenger mutations during tumor progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 (43): 18545–18550. PDF
  • 307.  Fu F, MA Nowak, C Hauert (2010). Invasion and expansion of cooperators in lattice populations: Prisoner's dilemma vs. Snowdrift games. J theor Biol 266 (3): 358–366. PDF
  • 308.  Hill AL, DG Rand, MA Nowak, NA Christakis (2010). Emotions as infectious diseases in a large social network: the SISa model. Proc R Soc B 277 (1701): 3827-3835. PDF
  • 309.  Hill AL, DG Rand, MA Nowak, NA Christakis (2010). Infectious disease modeling of social contagion in networks. PLoS Comput Biol 6 (11): e1000968. PDF
  • 310.  Imhof LA, MA Nowak (2010). Stochastic evolutionary dynamics of direct reciprocity. Proc R Soc B 277 (1680): 463-468. PDF
  • 311.  Manapat ML, IA Chen, MA Nowak (2010). The basic reproductive ratio of life. J theor Biol 263 (3): 317-327. PDF
  • 312.  Nowak MA, CE Tarnita, T Antal (2010). Evolutionary dynamics in structured populations. Phil Trans R Soc B 365 (1537): 19-30. PDF
  • 313.  Nowak MA, CE Tarnita, EO Wilson (2010). The evolution of eusociality. Nature 466 (7310): 1057-1062. PDF & SI
  • 314.  Ojosnegros S, N Beerenwinkel, T Antal, MA Nowak, C Escarmis, E Domingo (2010). Competition-colonization dynamics in an RNA virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 (5): 2108-2112. PDF
  • 315.  Rajamani S, JK Ichida, T Antal, DA Treco, K Leu, MA Nowak, JW Szostak, IA Chen (2010). Effect of stalling after mismatches on the error catastrophe in nonenzymatic nucleic acid replication. J Am Chem Soc 132 (16): 5880–5885.  PDF
  • 316.  Yachida S, S Jones, I Bozic, T Antal, R Leary, B Fu, M Kamiyama, RH Hruban, JR Eshleman, MA Nowak, VE Velculescu, KW Kinzler, B Vogelstein, CA Iacobuzio-Donahue (2010). Distant metastasis occurs late during the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer. Nature 467 (7319): 1114–1117. PDF






  • 394. Adlam B, Chatterjee K, MA Nowak (2015). Amplifiers of Selection. Proc. Royal. Soc. A. 471(2181). PDF
  • 395. Allen B, C Sample, YA Dementieva, RC Medeiros, C Paoletti, MA Nowak. The molecular clock of neutral evolution can be accelerated or slowed by asymmetric spatial structure. PLoS Comput Biol 11(2): e1004108. PDF
  • 396. Allen B, MA Nowak (2015). Games among relatives revisited. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 378: 103-116. PDF
  • 397. Antal T, PL Krapivsky, MA Nowak (2015). Spatial evolution of tumors with successive driver mutations. Phys. Rev. E. 92(2), 022705. PDF
  • 398. Fu F, Nowak MA, Bonhoeffer S.  (2015)  Spatial heterogeneity in drug concentrations can facilitate the emergence of resistance to cancer therapy. PLoS Comput Biol 11(3): e1004142. PDF
  • 399. Ghang W, MA Nowak. (2015) Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions. J theor Biol.:365: 1-11. PDF
  • 400. Hilbe C, M Hoffman, MA Nowak (2015). Cooperate without looking in a non-repeated game. Games 6(4), 458-472. PDF
  • 401. Hilbe C, B Wu, A Traulsen, MA Nowak (2015). Evolutionary performance of zero-determinant strategies in multiplayer games. J Theor Biol.: 374: 115-124 PDF
  • 402. Hoffman, M, E Yoeli, MA Nowak (2015) Cooperate without looking: Why we care what people think and not just what they do. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences112(6), 1727-1732. PDF
  • 403. Hoffman, M., Suetens, S., Gneezy, U. & Nowak, M.A. (2015) An experimental investigation of evolutionary dynamics in the Rock-Paper-Scissors game. Sci. Rep. 5, 8817. PDF
  • 404. Ibsen-Jensen R, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2015). Computational complexity of ecological and evolutionary spatial dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 112(51)15636-15641. PDF & SI
  • 405. Landau D, E Tausch, A N. Taylor-Weiner, C Stewart, J G. Reiter, J Bahlo, S Kluth, I Bozic, M Lawrence, S Böttcher, S L. Carter, K Cibulskis, D Mertens, C L. Sougnez, M Rosenberg, J M. Hess, J Edelmann, S Kless, M Kneba, M Ritgen, A Fink, K Fischer, S Gabriel, E S. Lander, M A. Nowak, H Döhner, M Hallek, D Neuberg, G Getz, S Stilgenbauer & C J. Wu  (2015) Mutations driving CLL and their evolution in progression and relapse. Nature 526: 525-530. PDF
  • 406. Leventhal G, A Hill, MA Nowak, S Bonhoeffer. (2015) Evolution and emergence of infectious diseases on theoretical and real-world networks. Nature Communications 6(6101) PDF
  • 407. Misale, S, I Bozic, J Tong, A Peraza-Penton, A Lallo, F Baldi, K Lin, L Trusolino, A Bertotti, F Di Nicolantonio, MA Nowak, L Zhang, K Wood, A Bardelli (2015). Vertical suppression of the EGFR pathway prevents onset of resistance in colorectal cancers. Nature Communications 6(8305). PDF
  • 408. Moreno-Gámez S, Hill AL, Rosenbloom DIR, Petrov D, Nowak MA, Pennings P (2015). Imperfect drug penetration leads to spatial monotherapy and rapid evolution of multi-drug resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(22) E2874-E2883. PDF
  • 409. Nowak MA (2015). Obituary: John Forbes Nash (1928 - 2015). Nature 522:420. PDF
  • 410. Nowak MA, Allen B (2015) Inclusive Fitness Theorizing Invokes Phenomena That Are Not Relevant for the Evolution of Eusociality. PLoS Biol 13(4): e1002134. PDF
  • 411. Ohtsuki H, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2015). Reputation effects in public and private interactions. PLOS Comp Biol. 11(11): e1004527 PDF
  • 412. Olejarz J, B Allen, C Veller, MA Nowak (2015). The evolution of non-reproductive workers in insect colonies with haplodiploid genetics. ELife 4:e08918. PDF
  • 413. Olejarz J, W Ghang, MA Nowak (2015). Indirect Reciprocity with Optional Interactions and Private Information. Games 6(4), 438-457. PDF
  • 414. Pavlogiannis A, K Chatterjee, B Adlam, MA Nowak (2015). Cellular cooperation with shift updating and repulsion. Sci Rep. 5:17147. PDF
  • 415. Rand DG and MA Nowak. "Cooperation among humans." Global Cooperation and the Human Factor in International Relations. Ed. Dirk Messner, Ed. Silke Weinlich. New York: Routledge, 2015. 113-138. Print.
  • 416. Reiter JG, Kanodia A, Gupta R, Nowak MA, Chatterjee K. (2015) Biological auctions with multiple rewards. Proc. R. Soc. B 282: 20151041. PDF
  • 417. Szabó G, KS Bodó, B Allen, MA Nowak (2015). Four classes of interactions for evolutionary games. Phys. Review. E 92(2). PDF
  • 418. Tomasetti C, L Marchionni, MA Nowak, G Parmigiani, B Vogelstein. (2015) Only three driver gene mutations are required for development of lung and colorectal cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 112(1):118-123. PDF
  • 419. Veller C, Nowak MA, Davis CC (2015). Extended flowering intervals of bamboos evolved by discrete multiplication. Ecology Letters.18(7):653-659. PDF
  • 420. Vukov J, L Varga, B Allen, MA Nowak, G Szabó (2015). Payoff components and their effects in a spatial three-strategy evolutionary social dilemma. Phys. Rev. E. 92, 012813 PDF
  • 421. Waclaw B, I Bozic, ME Pittman, RH Rhuban, B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2015). A spatial model predicts that dispersal and cell turnover limit intratumour heterogeneity. Nature. 525(7568):261-264. PDF


  • 422. Allen B, MA Nowak (2016). There is no inclusive fitness at the level of the individual. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 12: 122-128. PDF
  • 423. Baek SK, HC Jeong, C Hilbe, MA Nowak (2016). Comparing reactive and memory-one strategies of direct reciprocity. Sci Rep. 6(25676). PDF
  • 424. Bozic I, JM Gerold, MA Nowak (2016). Quantifying clonal and subclonal passenger mutations in cancer evolution.  PLoS Comput Biol 12(2): e1004731. PDF
  • 425. Burger, J.A., Landau, D.A., Taylor-Weiner, A., Bozic, I., Zhang, H., Sarosiek, K., Wang, L., Stewart, C., Fan, J., Hoellenriegel, J., Sivina, M., Dubuc, A.M.,Fraser, C., Han, Y.,Li, S., Livak K.J., Zou, L., Wan, Y., Konoplev, S., Sougnez, C., Brown, J.R., Abruzzo, L.V., Carter, S.L., Keating, M.J., Davids, M.S., Wierda, W.G., Cibulskis, K., Zenz, T., Werner, L., Dal Cin, P., Kharchencko, P., Neuberg,  D., Kantarjian, H., Lander, E., Gabriel, S., O’Brien, S., Letai, A., Weitz, D.A., Nowak, M.A., Getz, G. & Wu, C.J. (2016) Clonal evolution in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia developing resistance to BTK inhibition. Nature Communications, 7(11589). PDF
  • 426. Chen Y, A McAvoy, MA Nowak (2016). Fixation probabilities for any configuration of two strategies on regular graphs. Sci Rep 6:39181. PDF
  • 427. van Gestel J, MA Nowak (2016). Phenotypic heterogeneity and the evolution of bacterial life cycles. PLoS Comput Biol 12(2): e1004764. PDF
  • 428. Hauser O, A Hendriks, DG Rand, MA Nowak (2016). Think global, act local: Preserving the global commons. Sci Rep. 6:36079 PDF
  • 429. Kaveh K, C Veller, MA Nowak (2016). Games of multicellularity. J Theor Bio. 403:143-158. PDF
  • 430. Olejarz J, B Allen, C Veller, R Gadagkar, MA Nowak (2016). Evolution of worker policing. J. Theor. Bio. 399: 103-116. PDF
  • 431. Paterson C, MA Nowak, B Waclaw (2016). An exactly solvable, spatial model of mutation accumulation in cancer. Sci Rep. 6:39511 PDF
  • 432. Rand DG, J Jordan, M Hoffman, MA Nowak (2016). Uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113 (31) 8658-8663.  PDF
  • 433. Reiter, J. G., A Makohon-Moore, J Gerold, I Bozic, K Chatterjee, C Iacobuzio-Donahue, B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2016). Reconstructing the evolutionary history of metastatic cancers. Cancer Research, 76(14 Supplement), 2374-2374. PDF
  • 434. Veller C, D Haig, MA Nowak (2016). The Trivers-Willard hypothesis: sex ratio or investment? Proc. R. Soc. B 283(1830). PDF
  • 435. Yamamoto Y, CP Offord, G Kimura, S Kuribayashi, H Takeda, S Tsuchiya, H Shimojo, H Kanno, I Bozic, MA Nowak, Ž Bajzer, D Dingli (2016). Tumor and immune cell dynamics explain the PSA bounce after prostate cancer brachytherapy. British Journal of Cancer 115: 195–202. PDF
  • 436. Yeates J AM, C Hilbe, M Zwick, MA Nowak, N Lehman (2016). Dynamics of prebiotic RNA reproduction illuminated by chemical game theory. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 113 (18) 5030-5035  PDF



  • 458. Fotouhi B, N Momeni, B Allen, MA Nowak. Conjoining uncooperative societies facilitates evolution of cooperation. Nature Human Behaviour 2: 492-499. PDF
  • 459. HIlbe, C., Schmid, L., Tkadlec, J., Krishnendu, C. & M. A. Nowak (2018). Indirect reciprocity with private, noisy, and incomplete information.  115 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 48: 12241–12246. PDF
  • 460. Hilbe, C., Šimsa, Š., Chatterjee, K. & M. A. Nowak. Evolution of cooperation in stochastic games. Nature. PDF
  • 461. Hilbe, C., Chatterjee, K., & M. A. Nowak (2018). Partners and rivals in direct reciprocity. Nature Human Behaviour 1. PDF
  • 462. Hill A. L., Rosenbloom, D. I. S., Nowak, M. A. and R. F. Silciano. (2018). Insight into treatment of HIV infection from viral dynamics models. Modeling Viral Infection and Immunology 285: 9-25. PDF
  • 463. Hoffman M, C Hilbe & MA Nowak (2018). The signal-burying game can explain why we obscure positive traits and good deeds. Nature Human Behaviour 2: 397–404. PDF
  • 464. Ibsen-Jensen R, J Tkadlec, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2018). Language acquisition with communication between learners. J. Royal Soc. Interface. 15: 20180073. PDF
  • 465. Kaveh, K., McAvoy, A. & M. A. Nowak (2018). Environmental Fitness Heterogeneity in the Moran Process. Royal Society Open Science PDF
  • 466. Kirtane AR, Abouzid O, Minahan D, Bensel T, Hill AL, Selinger C, Bershteyn A, Mo SS, Craig M, Mazdiyasni H, Cleveland C, Rogner J, Lee YAL, Booth L, Javid F, Wu SJ, Grant T, Bellinger AM, Nikolic B, Hayward A, Wood L, Eckhoff PA, Nowak MA, Langer R, Traverso G (2018). Development of an oral once-weekly drug delivery system for HIV antiretroviral therapy. Nat Comms 9(2). PDF
  • 467. Makohon-Moore, A. P., Matsukuma, K., Zhang, M., Reiter, J.G., Gerold, J.M., Jiao, Y., Sikkema, L., Attiyeh, M. A., Yachida, S., Sandone, C., Hruban, R.H., Klimstra, D.S., Papadopoulos, N., Nowak, M.A., Kinzler, K.W., Vogelstein, B. and C.A. Iacobuzio-Donahue (2018). Precancerous neoplastic cells can move through the pancreatic ductal system. Nature PDF
  • 468. McAvoy A, Adlam B, Allen B, Nowak MA (2018). Stationary Frequencies and Mixing Times for Neutral Drift Processes with Spatal Structure. PDF
  • 469. McAvoy A, C Hauert, J Wakeley, MA Nowak, N Fraiman (2018). Public goods games in populations with fluctuating size. Theor. Popul. Biol. 121:72-84. PDF
  • 470. Neagu IA, M Freeman, J Olejarz, MA Nowak, AL Hill (2018). Life Cycle Synchronization as a Viral Drug Resistance Mechanism. PLOS Comp. Bio.14(2), e1005947 PDF
  • 471. Noble, C., Adlam, B., Church, G. M., Esvelt, K. M., & Nowak, M. A. (2018). Current CRISPR gene drive systems are likely to be highly invasive in wild populations. eLife7, e33423. PDF
  • 472. Olejarz, J., Kaveh, K., Veller, C. and M.A. Nowak (2018). Selection for synchronized cell division in simple multicellular organisms. Journal of Theoretical Biology 457. PDF
  • 473. Pavlogiannis, A., Tkadlec, J., Chatterjee, K. & M. A. Nowak (2018). Strong Amplifiers of Natural Selection: Proofs. ArXiv.
  • 474. Pavlogiannis, A., Tkadlec, J., Chatterjee, K., & M. A. Nowak (2018). Construction of arbitrarily strong amplifiers of natural selection using evolutionary graph theory. 1 Communications Biology 71. PDF
  • 475. Priklopil, T., Chatterjee, K. & M. A. Nowak (2018). Optional interactions and suspicious behavior facilitates trustful coopoeration in prisoners dilemma. 433 J. Theo. Bio 64-72. PDF
  • 476. Reiter J, C Hilbe, D Rand, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2018). Crosstalk in concurrent repeated games impedes direct reciprocity and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. Nat Comms 9(555). PDF
  • 477. Reiter, J.G., Makohon-Moore, A.P., Gerold, J.M., Heyde, A., Attiyeh, M.A., Kohutek, Z.A., Tokheim, C.J., Brown, A., DeBlasio, R.M., Niyazov, J., Zucker, A., Karchin, R., Zinkler, K.W., Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.A., Vogelstein, B. and M. A. Nowak (2018). Minimal functional driver gene heterogeneity among untreated metastases. Science 361 (6404). PDF
  • 478. Sinai, S., Olejarz, J., Neagu, I. A., &, M. A. Nowak (2018). Primordial Sex Facilitates the Emergence of Evolution. J. Royal Soc. Interface. 15(139), 20180003. PDF
  • 479. Wakeley, J. and M. A. Nowak (2018). A two-player iterated survival game. 125 Theoretical Population Biology 38-55. PDF


  • 480. Fotouhi, B, Momenti, N, Allen, B. and M A Nowak (2019). Evolution of cooperation on large networks with community structure. J. R. Soc. Interface 16: PDF
  • 481. Alexander Heyde, Johannes Reiter,  Kamila Naxerova, Martin Nowak (2019). Consecutive seeding and transfer of genetic diversity in metastasis. PNAS. 
  • 482. Michaela Gruber, Ivana Bozic, Ignaty Leshchiner, Dimitri Livitz, Kristen Stevenson, Laura Rassenti, Daniel Rosebrock, Amaro Taylor-Weiner, Oriol Olive, Reaha Goyetche, Stacey M. Fernandes, Jing Sun, Chip Stewart, Alicia Wong, Carrie Cibulskis, Wandi Zhang, Johannes G. Reiter, Jeffrey M. Gerold, John G. Gribben, Kanti R. Rai, Michael J. Keating, Jennifer R. Brown, Donna Neuberg, Thomas J. Kipps, Martin A. Nowak, Gad Getz & Catherine J. Wu (2019). Growth dynamics in naturally progressing chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Nature                                                                                                                                                                                                             
  • 483. Kaveh, K, McAvoy, A. & M. A. Nowak. Environmental fitness heterogeneity in the Moran process. R. Soc. Open Sci. 5.  PDF
  • 484. McAvoy, A and M A Nowak (2019). Reactive learning strategies for iterated games. Pro. R. Soc. A 475: PDF
  •  485. Tkadlec, J., Pavlogiannis, A., Chatterjee, K., & M. A. Nowak (2019). Population structure determines the tradeoff between fixation probability and fixation time. Communications Biology
  • 486. Veller, C., Kleckner, N.and M. A. Nowak (2018). A rigorous measure of genome-wide genetic shuffling that takes intoa ccount crossover positons and Mendel's second law. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States. PDF

  • 487. Reiter, J., Baretti,  M., Gerold, J., Makohon-Moore, A., Daud, A., Iacobuzio-Donahue, C., Azad, N., Kinzler, K., Nowak, M. A. & B. Vogelstein.  Genetic heterogeneity in untreated cancers. Nature.
  • 488. Hauser, O., Hilbe, C., Chatterjee, K., & M.A. Nowak (2019). Social dilemmas among unequals. Nature.
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